(section: 3 / paragraph: a / line: 1)
There is no official "formula sheet" for the Astronomy C event. I believe you are referring to the sheet on the Scioly.org website (http://scioly.org/wiki/images/c/c6/Formula_Sheet.pdf), which was made by competitors, not event supervisors. However, there are helpful formulae and examples on the Coaches Manual CD. When grading numerical answers, supervisors always should accept a range of answers, usually plus or minus 10% of the value on the key. This guideline is shown on the sample tests at http://soinc.org/sites/default/files/uploaded_files/Astronomy_ES_GUIDE_C15.pdf and http://soinc.org/sites/default/files/uploaded_files/AnnotatedRegionalAstronomyTest15.pdf. A nominal range can be explicitly due to competitors having slightly different physical constants or tabulated values depending on their resource.
(section: 3 / paragraph: c / sub-paragraph: i / line: 2)
Yes, they are the same object. Hence, it does not matter which response is given, as both are correct.
(section: 3 / paragraph: c / sub-paragraph: i / line: 3)
The rules refer to the entire Fomalhaut system (including both the star and planet).
(section: 2 / paragraph: a / sub-paragraph: i / line: 3)
No- The last sentence states 'The materials must be punched and inserted (emphasis) into the rings (sheet protectors are allowed).
(section: 3 / paragraph: First / sub-paragraph: N/A / line: 4)
Yes, students could be asked to identify incomplete specimens. Samples requiring identification should show specific features making identification reasonable. A bone fragment would usually not be enough to make a solid identification, but a tooth or claw might be.
(section: 2 / line: 3)
"Compass" refers to the magnetic, directional compass.