(section: 3 / paragraph: f / line: 1)
No, only the listed items in rule 3.f. are allowed as projectiles.
(section: 3f / paragraph: a / line: 3/4)
The most common type of plastic golf balls are plastic dimpled and plastic with holes and HDPE foam types are legal. As long as they are commercially marketed as "plastic practice golf balls", they may be used. It is recommended that students bring the packaging if there is a question.
(section: 4 / paragraph: a / line: 2)
Yes, the 1.5 m side of the launch area is the side that is parallel to the launch direction and the front of the launch area is 1 m wide.
(section: 4 / paragraph: e / line: 1)
Rule 4.d. explicitly says that the target is either tape on the floor or panels lying on the floor. There should not be any significant difference between the floor height in the launch area and the targets.
(section: 4 / paragraph: g / line: 1)
Competitors may choose either target for their first shot. They may then choose to take their second shot at the same target or their first shot at the other target. If they qualify to take a bucket shot after their first shot at a particular target, they must ask for the bucket when they wish to take the second shot at that target.
(section: 4 / paragraph: h / line: 2)
Competitors will be told the distance of the targets from the launch area and can measure their impact locations from the launch area if outside of the target.
(section: 4 / paragraph: i / line: 7)
Rule 4.i states that "making contact with the inside bottom surface is worth an additional 100 points." It does not state that after making contact the projectile must remain in the bucket, so the bonus is given even if the projectile subsequently bounces out of the bucket.
(section: 3 / paragraph: a / line: 1)
For the class 1 lever the load point to load point measurements must be less than or equal to 40.0 cm. The size of the the fulcrum is irrelevant to this measurement.
Per General Rule 1, yes it is allowed. As long as it complies to all other event rules, general rules, and the official Science Olympiad Building and Tools policy found at http://soinc.org/building_tools_policy. A 3D printer is no different from any other workshop tool such as a table saw or drill press.
(section: 2 / paragraph: a / sub-paragraph: xv / line: 1)
Most event supervisors are going to go by the book, which means the two pages would need to be in a binder. There are no rules on the removal of the pages, but it might be best to ask the event supervisor if removal of the pages would be allowed.